Use the promo code "minuteearth" at for 26% off an annual subscription to CuriosityStream, plus access to Nebula! Not all hardwood trees have hard wood and softwoods soft wood, because these terms denote their taxonomic ancestry, not the wood's actual hardness. LEARN MORE ************** To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords: Angiosperm: a plant that has flowers and produces seeds enclosed within a carpel. Gymnosperm: a plant that has seeds unprotected by an ovary or fruit. SUPPORT MINUTEEARTH ************************** If you like what we do, you can help us!: - Become our patron: - Share this video with your friends and family - Leave us a comment (we read them!) CREDITS ********* Julián Gustavo Gómez | Script Writer, Narrator and Director Josh Taira | Illustration, Video Editing and Animation Ever Salazar | Audio Editing Nathaniel Schroeder | Music MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC OUR STAFF ************ Sarah Berman • Arcadi Garcia Rius David Goldenberg • Julián Gustavo Gómez Melissa Hayes • Alex Reich • Henry Reich Peter Reich • Ever Salazar • Kate Yoshida OUR LINKS ************ Youtube | TikTok | minuteearth Twitter | Instagram | Facebook | Website | Apple Podcasts| REFERENCES ************** Ansell, M. P. "Wood microstructure–A cellular composite." Wood Composites. Woodhead Publishing, 2015. 3-26. Bjurhager, Ingela. Effects of Cell Wall Structure on Tensile Properties of Hardwood: Effect of down-regulation of lignin on mechanical performance of transgenic hybrid aspen. Diss. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2011. 409533/FULLTEXT02.pdf Botes, Christo, Steven D. Johnson, and Richard M. Cowling. "The birds and the bees: using selective exclusion to identify effective pollinators of African tree aloes." International Journal of Plant Sciences 170.2 (2009): 151-156. Butterfield B.G. (1993) The structure of wood: an overview. In: Primary Wood Processing. Springer, Dordrecht. Chilson-Parks, Laura. "Wood in the Middle Ages." Perspectives (2015). Cywa, K. Trees and shrubs used in medieval Poland for making everyday objects. Veget Hist Archaeobot 27, 111–136 (2018). Laboratory, Forest Products. Wood Handbook: Wood As an Engineering Material. United States, CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 2013. Meier, Eric. “Hardwood Anatomy.” The Wood Database, . Minea, Vasile. Industrial Heat Pump-Assisted Wood Drying. United States, CRC Press, 2018. Plomion, Christophe, Grégoire Leprovost, and Alexia Stokes. "Wood formation in trees." Plant physiology 127.4 (2001): 1513-1523. Ramage, Michael H., et al. "The wood from the trees: The use of timber in construction." Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 68 (2017): 333-359. Simm, Jonathan, and Crossman, Matt. Manual on the Use of Timber in Coastal and River Engineering. United Kingdom, Thomas Telford, 2004. Wei-Dan Ding , Ahmed Koubaa , et al. (2008) Relationship between wood porosity, wood density and methyl methacrylate impregnation rate, Wood Material Science & Engineering, 3:1-2, 62-70, Wiedenhoeft, Alex. "Structure and function of wood." Wood handbook: wood as an engineering material: chapter 3. Centennial ed. General technical report FPL; GTR-190. Madison, WI: US Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory, 2010: p. 3.1-3.18. 190 (2010): 3-1. WOOD Magazine Staff. “What Is the World's Hardest Wood?” WOOD Magazine, WOOD Magazine, 17 Jan. 2019, .