Sign up for your FREE trial to The Great Courses Plus here: . Because of the way genetic reprogramming works, it’s hard to make one clone based on an adult cell, and it’s almost impossible to make a second-generation one. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Cell: The smallest structural and functional unit of an organism. Clone: An organism produced asexually from one ancestor, to which they are genetically identical. DNA: Deoxyribonucleic acid, a self-replicating material that is present in nearly all living organisms as the main component of chromosomes. It is the carrier of genetic information. Embryo: An unborn or unhatched offspring early in the process of development. Enzyme: A substance produced by a living organism that acts as a catalyst to bring about a specific biochemical reaction. Gene: A unit of heredity which is transferred from a parent to offspring. These are encoded within DNA and help determine traits. Genetic Reprogramming: This refers to erasing and remodeling epigenetic marks, such as DNA methylation during mammalian development. Zygote: A diploid cell resulting from the fusion of two haploid gametes ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: Support us on Patreon: And visit our website: Say hello on Facebook: And Twitter: And download our videos on itunes: ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Cameron Duke (@dukeofcam) Video Director, Narrator, and Script Editor: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia Rius (@garirius) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, Julián Gómez, Sarah Berman Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: ___________________________________________ References: Chan, M. M., Smith, Z. D., Egli, D., Regev, A., & Meissner, A. (2012). Mouse ooplasm confers context-specific reprogramming capacity. Nature Genetics, 44(9), 978–980. Dean, W., Santos, F., & Reik, W. (2003). Epigenetic reprogramming in early mammalian development and following somatic nuclear transfer. Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology, 14(1), 93–100. 02)00141-6 Evans, M. J., Gurer, C., Loike, J. D., Wilmut, I., Schnieke, A. E., & Schon, E. A. (1999). Mitochondrial DNA genotypes in nuclear transfer-derived cloned sheep. Nature Genetics, 23(1), 90–93. Gao, R., Wang, C., Gao, Y., et al. (2018). Inhibition of Aberrant DNA Re-methylation Improves Post-implantation Development of Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Embryos. Cell Stem Cell, 23(3), 426–435.e5. Histone Deacetylase - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics. (n.d.). Www.Sciencedirect.Com. Retrieved March 2, 2020, from Hochedlinger, K., & Plath, K. (2009). Epigenetic reprogramming and induced pluripotency. Development, 136(4), 509–523. Hochedlinger, K., Rideout, W. M., Kyba, M., Daley, G. Q., Blelloch, R., & Jaenisch, R. (2004). Nuclear transplantation, embryonic stem cells and the potential for cell therapy. The Hematology Journal, 5, S114–S117. Lister, R., Pelizzola, M., Kida, Y. S., et al. (2011). Hotspots of aberrant epigenomic reprogramming in human induced pluripotent stem cells. Nature, 471(7336), 68–73. Morgan, H. D., Santos, F., Green, K., Dean, W., & Reik, W. (2005). Epigenetic reprogramming in mammals. Human Molecular Genetics, 14(suppl_1), R47–R58. Reik, W. (2001). Epigenetic Reprogramming in Mammalian Development. Science, 293(5532), 1089–1093. Srivastava, D., & DeWitt, N. (2016). In Vivo Cellular Reprogramming: The Next Generation. Cell, 166(6), 1386–1396. Wakayama, S., Kohda, T., Obokata, H., et al. (2013). Successful Serial Recloning in the Mouse over Multiple Generations. Cell Stem Cell, 12(3), 293–297. Wakayama, T., Shinkai, Y., Tamashiro, K. L. K., et al. (2000). Cloning of mice to six generations. Nature, 407(6802), 318–319. Yamanaka, S. (2012). Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells: Past, Present, and Future. Cell Stem Cell, 10(6), 678–684.