Thanks to CTBTO for sponsoring this video: Many of the bewildering correlations in our world - like that between Beryllium-7 and the Asian monsoon - are a result of huge and unseen forces that tie them together. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Monsoon: A seasonal increase in precipitation driven by atmospheric conditions. Hadley Cell: A global scale atmospheric cell driven by air rising near the equator and falling as it flows towards the polls. Ferrel Cell: A secondary atmospheric circulation that collides with the Hadley cell and pushes air back down towards the Earth’s surface. Intertropical Convergence Zone: The narrow zone between the northern and southern Hadley cells where warm air comes together and rises. Tropopause: The boundary area roughly 15 kilometers above the Earth’s surface between the troposphere and the stratosphere. Radionuclide: Isotopes of atoms that release radiation as they break down. Beryllium-7: A relatively stable radionuclide of the element Beryllium that naturally forms in the tropopause during spallation. Spallation: The process in which a heavier atom loses nuclear particles after being bombarded by cosmic rays. Cosmic Rays: High energy atomic particles that move at near light speed through space. ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: Support us on Patreon: And visit our website: Say hello on Facebook: And Twitter: And download our videos on itunes: ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Video Writer, Director, and Narrator: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Video Illustrator: Sarah Berman (@sarahjberman) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, Julián Gómez, Arcadi Garcia Rius Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: ___________________________________________ References: Terzi, L., Kalinowski, M., Schoeppner, M., and Wotawa, G. (2019). How to predict seasonal weather and monsoons with radionuclide monitoring. Nature. 9: 2729. Retrieved from: . Köhn‐Reich, L., Bürger, G. (2019). Dynamical prediction of Indian monsoon: Past and present skill. International Journal of Climatology. 38:3574-3581. Retrieved from: . Delaygue, G., Bekki, S., and Bard, E. (2015) Modelling the stratospheric budget of beryllium isotopes. Tellus B: Chemical and Physical Meteorology, 67:1 Retrieved from: . Palukkat, H. (2016) The odds of foretelling rains: Why monsoon prediction is hard, and why it could soon improve. Economic Times. Retrieved from: . Kalinowski, M. (2020). Personal Communication. Provisional Technical Secretariat, Preparatory Commission for the Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization.