Thanks to the University of Minnesota for sponsoring this video! Fruit trees are unpredictable and grow slowly, and consumer tastes are fickle, so successful new varieties of fruit are rare. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: grafting: joining together a cut branch with a cut root of the same species to produce a new individual ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: Support us on Patreon: And visit our website: Say hello on Facebook: And Twitter: And download our videos on itunes: ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Peter Reich Script Editor and Video Narrator: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) and Sarah Berman (@sarahjberman) Video Director: Ever Salazar and Alex Reich With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, David Goldenberg, Julián Gómez, and Arcadi Garcia Rius Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: ___________________________________________ References: Hoying SA, AM DeMarree and MM Sazo. 2012. Successful Apple Grafting Techniques for New York. New York Fruit Quarterly 20 7-10. Janick J. 2005. The origin of fruits, fruit growing, and fruit breeding. Plant Breeding Rev. 25:255-320. Luby JJ and DS Bedford. 1992. Honeycrisp apple. Minnesota Report 225-1992 (AD-MR-5877-B) Minnesota Landscape Arboretum. 2019. Fruit Breeding. University of Minnesota website. Seetin M. 2018. 2018 U.S. Apple Crop Outlook and Overview. usapple.org 42 pages Tadesse W et al. 2019. Genetic gains in wheat breeding and its role in feeding the world. Crop Breeding, Genetics, and Genomics 2019;1:e190005. Yamamato T. 2016. Breeding, genetics and genomics of fruit trees. Breeding Science 66:1-2.