Why Are There Penguins At The Equator?

published 2 years ago by Neptune Studios

Try Dashlane here: . Plus, here’s a 10% off promo code for Dashlane Premium: minuteearth When nutrients from the ocean depths reach the sunlit surface (like in the Galapagos), life is more productive. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Net Primary Production (NPP): the amount of primary production that organisms do, minus the amount of carbon they use up to do so (by respiring) Phytoplankton: microscopic green algae that live in water and get energy through photosynthesis. Learn more here: Primary Production: the synthesis of organic chemicals from carbon dioxide (mostly happens through photosynthesis) Upwelling: the motion of cooler, usually nutrient-rich, water towards the ocean surface ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: Support us on Patreon: And visit our website: Say hello on Facebook: And Twitter: And download our videos on itunes: ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Script Editor: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia Video Director: Alex Reich & Emily Elert Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder:   ___________________________________________ References: Ainley, David. Personal Communication, 2018. Baker, A. J., et al. 2006. Multiple gene evidence for expansion of extant penguins out of Antarctica due to global cooling. Proc of Royal Soc B: Biol Sci, 273 (1582), 11-17. Behrenfeld, M. J., et al. 2006. Climate-driven trends in contemporary ocean productivity. Nature, 444(7120), 752. Boersma, Dee. Personal Communication, 2018. Boyd, P.W., et al. 2014. Cross-chapter box on net primary production in the ocean. In: Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the IPCC [Field, C.B., et al (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK & New York, NY, USA, pp. 133-136. Dybdahl, Mark. Personal Communication, 2018. Falkowski, P. G., et al. 1998. Biogeochemical controls and feedbacks on ocean primary production. Science, 281(5374), 200-206. Field, C. B., et al. 1998. Primary production of the biosphere: integrating terrestrial and oceanic components. Science, 281(5374), 237-240. Karnauskas, K. B., et al. 2017. Paleoceanography of the eastern equatorial Pacific over the past 4 million years and the geologic origins of modern Galapagos upwelling. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 460, 22-28. LaRue, Michelle. Personal Communication, 2018. Kallmeyer, Jens. Personal Communication, 2018. Pockalny, Robert. Personal Communication, 2018. Sigman, D. M. & Hain, M. P. 2012. The Biological Productivity of the Ocean. Nature Education Knowledge 3(10):21. Stock, Charlie. Personal Communication, 2018. Galapagos penguin diet Penguin diet Cromwell Current & Galapagos: Penguin distribution: , Ocean productivity: sgilman/770productivitynutrients.htm

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